It is a first class and high quality pistachio that has grown well in water, air and soil. As you know, Rafsanjan is a suitable area for pistachio cultivation and production, especially Akbari pistachio. Akbari pistachio, like other types of pistachios, is produced in Rafsanjan. Akbari pistachio such as Kalleghouchi pistachio, Fandoghi pistachio and Ahmad Aghaei pistachio have the highest cultivation in Iran and Rafsanjan.

Akbari pistachio

It is a first class and high quality pistachio that has grown well in water, air and soil. As you know, Rafsanjan is a suitable area for pistachio cultivation and production, especially Akbari pistachio. Akbari pistachio, like other types of pistachios, is produced in Rafsanjan. Akbari pistachio such as Kalleghouchi pistachio, Fandoghi pistachio and Ahmad Aghaeipistachio have the highest cultivation in Iran and Rafsanjan. In Khorasan, this type of pistachio has a production history of less than twenty years. This pistachio has a higher price than other pistachios. Akbari pistachio color is beautiful when harvested red. Its bone skin color is cream and its brain color is pale yellow. The dimensions of the dried pistachio are 22.12 mm. Akbari pistachio is very tasty. That is why they use it in nuts. Due to its size and beauty, it is known as a luxurious and stylish nut. Akbari pistachios are very tasty. If you are in the pistachio garden and eat fresh and ripe Akbari pistachios, you will fall in love with its taste. When this pistachio is harvested, processed and dried, it retains its excellent taste. Consumption of pistachios with breakfast not only makes breakfast delicious, but also strengthens the mind and brain. It is recommended to eat pistachios in the early hours of the morning with breakfast. Because pistachio kernels are rich in vitamins, proteins and elements such as iron, magnesium, phosphorus and potassium. Akbari pistachio of Salty is very tasty. Sometimes this pistachio is salted with lemon juice and saffron, and the taste of both pistachios is excellent

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Figure1-Akbari pistachio

Characters of Akbari pistachio tree

This type of pistachio, also known as Abdollahi in Rafsanjan region, is identified and produced in Kashkouyeh village of Rafsanjan. Akbari pistachio is a commercial and well known variety throughout the country. It has the highest economic value. Akbari pistachio tree growth is slow. The end part is very weak. As a result, the number of lateral branches on one year and two year branches is high. On an annual and biennial branch, there are on average more than 5 side branches. The tree growth type is generally broad. These trees are not very tall during the peak years of fruiting. The highest altitude recorded for this tree was about 270 cm. Akbari pistachio tree is the most important type of pistachio in terms of characters and traits that can be pruned as desired by gardeners. One of the best forms of growing this tree is a cup or open center. In which, the tree is branched into three branches and from three points close to each other. Due to the strength of the wood and the high density of the branches, it is resistant to strong winds. The trunk and branches do not bend in the wind. Of course, if there is a strong wind in May, a number of its branches will be cut off. This is done so that the clusters and fruits are not damaged. Due to the fact that a high percentage of leaves are five leafed, the leaf area is very high in this type. The average leaf area is about 130 square centimeters. Due to the roughness of the skin during the transplant season and the high percentage of error in transplanting this tree, many people are reluctant to transplant this tree

Akbari pistachio seedling planting distance

In a research project, the effect of basic type on growth and Eco physiological study of two types of Akbari and black leaf was studied. The results of the first two years of the project showed that the Akbari bond on the Akbari and Sarakhs bases has the greatest effect on potassium up take. Due to the fact that Akbari seedlings are from low to medium growth types, so the minimum recommended distance for proper planting of these seedlings is 4 meters in a row and 6 meters between rows. The growth type of the tree is wide to hanging, so the height of the main trunk from the soil surface should be considered between 1 and 1.5 meters. This causes the main branches to branch off from a higher height. And in the coming years, along with the growth and fruiting of the tree, its harvest will not be a problem. Akbari pistachio seedlings are one of the types that can be easily and cheaply cultivated in a suitable and desirable way. Due to the density of the branches and the high leaf area in this type and the drying of the branches in winter, they have a lot of product. So it is necessary to do light pruning on the tree once every two years. Because the growing season of this type of seedling is long, it should be avoided in areas with short growing seasons

Flowering and fruiting of Akbari pistachio tree

Akbari pistachio tree is late flowering and late. Flowering begins about the third year after transplantation. Flowering in this tree and in most areas starts on April 12 and ends on April 19. It usually starts to grow on July 20, and the fruit ripens in mid-September. There are two main types of this tree. In one of them, when the pistachio skin arrives, it is green and white. And in the other brigade, the skin color is pistachio, green and pale red. One of the characters of the fruit of this tree is that during the growth of the fruit, a large part of its hollow fruit dries out. Dry grains fall off. The average number of fruits per cluster is about 21, which is higher than many other species.
At the end of April 2008, due to the high heat and pollination problems that occurred for this type of tree, the average per cluster was reduced to 12. The weight of the wet fruit in this type is 4.3 grams on average and the weight of one dried pistachio seed is 4.1 grams. The thickness of green skin in Akbari pistachio is low. So that out of every 100 grams of fresh pistachio, 39 grams is the weight of green skin. Its ounce is 22 and out of 100 grams of dried pistachio, 50 grams are kernel. The shape of the fruit is ovoid and more than 92% of them are open

The effect of late spring cold on Akbari pistachio tree

Between 2000 and 2008, when there was frequent spring frosts, the tree was not severely damaged. Because the spring cold is usually from the first to the twentieth of April. Flowering of this tree also starts from April 12 onwards. Although Akbari pistachio tree is safe from spring cold, the flowering time of this tree and early spring heat are very high. As a result, due to the shortening of the effective pollination period and the longevity of pollen grains and severe shortage of pollen grains, the percentage of fruit formation in this tree is greatly reduced. In cases where the garden is close to the desert, strong winds and high dust will destroy a significant part of the flowers. Among pistachio trees, Akbari tree had the highest need for cold. It takes about 1,200 hours to cool down. Therefore, in winters when there is not enough cold to meet the minimum cold needs of this type and April is accompanied by an increase in temperature, a large part of flower buds, especially on strong branches, will not open. So thicker branches need more cold

Features of Akbari pistachio tree

One of the features of this pistachio is that due to the high level of leaves and fruits, the problem of sunburn has not been observed in this type so far. In general, due to good rainfall and high economic value, its planting is especially suitable in lands whose water and soil are low to medium salinity Akbari pistachio is one of the best types of pistachios available in Iran and the world. In areas with mild winters and not cold enough, it should be planted with caution

Akbari pistachio production

Akbari pistachio is one of the medium types in terms of fruit ripening. The planting distance of seedlings is 4 meters in length and 6 meters in width. If the male trees selected for the garden are late flowering, the planting of male trees should be increased. Of course, if pollination is done well in early April. Pruning should be done well for the Akbari trees in winter. Side branches should be removed. Ways to Proliferation or propagate Akbari pistachio tree by transplanting it. Fertilization and foliar spraying operations for Akbari pistachio trees should be done well. You can use rotten manure that is used as a manure hole.

What are the methods of harvesting and processing Akbari pistachio?

Before harvesting, Akbari pistachio should be irrigated to harvest more juicy pistachios. The Akbari pistachio harvest season begins on September 6 and continues until October 1. Harvesting is done by skilled workers and transport machinery. Machines are used to transport pistachios and garbage. After harvesting the pistachios, it is time to process them, peel and wash them. The first stage of Akbari pistachio processing is the peeling stage. pistachios are inserted into the machine or peeler wheel and the pistachio is peeled. After the peeling stage, it is the turn of the hollow pistachio machine that pistachios enter this machine and the hollow pistachios are separated. After the vacuum cleaner, it is time for the peeler. The pistachios enter the peeling machine and the pistachios that have hard skin, their skin is separated. After this stage, the pistachios enter the washing machine or trash can, where the pistachios are well washed. After that pistachios go into the pistachio dryer and are heated. pistachios are 40% dry. Finally, after drying, it is transferred to the area to dry completely in the presence of air and sun

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Figure4-Akbari pistachio

Akbari pistachio inventory

After drying, Akbari pistachio should be packaged and stored in the sun and air. However, before storing, they must be inserted into the separating device so that closed, open and pea shaped pistachios are separated and turned into first class pistachios. After separating the impurities of Akbari pistachio, each sample is stored in separate bags. Care should be taken in storing pistachios. Each type of pistachio of any kind must be stored separately and written on the sacks. There are two important factors in storing pistachios, one is the storage moisture and the other is the storage temperature. Wet storage should not be increased. Because the moisture content of pistachios is high and may cause fungus and a variety of diseases. The temperature of the storehouse should not increase either, because the heat will provide life for the insects, which will seriously damage the pistachios. Therefore, Akbari pistachio storage points are as follows:

  • pistachio storage moisture should be controlled and storage moisture should not be increased.
  • The heat or temperature of the storehouse should also be controlled and the temperature of the storehouse should not be increased.
  • In the storehouse under the sacks of pistachios, special boards should be placed so that the pistachios are separated from the ground and are protected from the danger of insects and moisture attack.
  • The storage environment should be clean and free of any contamination and disinfected every few months.
  • pistachio storehouse should be designed so that the entry and exit of trucks is easy.

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